Continuing the Arch Linux installation on a PC or virtual machine¶
This section assumes that you have prepared your PC or virtual machine as described in Prepare a PC to develop for UBOS using Arch Linux or Prepare a VirtualBox virtual machine to develop for UBOS using Arch Linux.
Once the boot process has finished and you get a root shell, you are not done: you only managed to boot from the install disk image, you do not have a runnable system yet. In this respect, ArchLinux is different from other Linux distros.
In the shell that came up, perform the actual installation. The following steps should work. If you need more information, consult the Arch Linux installation guide:
Partition your root disk /dev/sda in a way that makes sense to you, e.g. using a single partition:
> fdisk /dev/sda
Select n and the defaults. Then select w to write changes to disk.
Create a filesystem for your partition. While you can use any filesystem, we recommend btrfs as it is tightly integrated with systemd-nspawn, the systemd container tool. This may save you a substantial amount of disk space if you might run several UBOS instances in containers later on, e.g. for testing:
> mkfs.btrfs /dev/sda1
Ignore the warning about btrfs being experimental. (Still wondering when they will finally remove it.)
Mount your future root partition in a place where you can install software:
> mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
Make sure you have a network connection:
> ip addr
will show whether you have an IP address, and which networking devices are available. If you are in VirtualBox and have trouble, here is more information on VirtualBox networking modes. By default, your machine is looking for a DHCP server to obtain an IP address from on all available network interfaces.
Perform the actual install. This will download and install a lot of packages and thus may take a while, depending on your network speed:
> pacstrap /mnt base
Create the right fstab by executing:
> genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
Chroot into your future root disk and finish the installation:
> arch-chroot /mnt
If you chose btrfs, install the btrfs tools:
> pacman -S btrfs-progs
You also need a boot loader and sudo:
> pacman -S grub sudo
If you are on VirtualBox, also install the VirtualBox client tools:
> pacman -S virtualbox-guest-modules-arch virtualbox-guest-utils
Create a Ramdisk:
> mkinitcpio -p linux
Configure the boot loader:
> grub-install --recheck /dev/sda > grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
Install a Locale. Edit /etc/locale.gen, and uncomment this line:
so it looks like this:
You can also uncomment whatever other locales you might want. Then run:
Exit from the chroot shell with ctrl-d.
Set up networking. There are many options. We recommend using systemd-networkd and systemd-resolved in the way UBOS does it so UBOS containers and the Arch Linux host play nicely:
> rm /mnt/etc/resolv.conf > ln -s /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf /mnt/etc/resolv.conf > arch-chroot /mnt systemctl enable systemd-networkd systemd-resolved
Also create file /mnt/etc/systemd/network/wired.network with the following content:
[Match] Name=en* [Network] DHCP=ipv4 IPForward=1
The IPForward setting is necessary if you plan to run or test UBOS in a Linux container, so it can reach the internet.
Shut down the machine:
> shutdown -h now
While the machine is shut down, remove the installation medium from the drive. If you are on VirtualBox, remove the ISO file from the virtual CD/DVD drive. To do that:
- Select the virtual machine in the sidebar.
- Click “Settings”.
- Pick the “Storage” tab.
- In the “Storage Tree”, select the virtual CD/DVD drive.
- In the right pane, click the little CD icon and select “Remove disk from virtual drive” in the pop-up that comes up.
- Click OK.
Then, start the machine again and log on as root. There is no password by default. You might want to change that, by saying:
Create a non-root user (example: joe, change as needed). Use this user when developing instead of doing everything as root. Also allow the user to become root with sudo as needed, and set a password for it:
useradd -m joe passwd joe cat > /etc/sudoers.d/joe joe ALL = NOPASSWD: ALL ^D chmod 600 /etc/sudoers.d/joe
Install the desktop environment you might want to use. For example, to use KDE with the plasma desktop:
pacman -S xorg-server sddm plasma-meta konsole systemctl enable sddm
If you are on VirtualBox, enable the VirtualBox client tools:
systemctl enable vboxservice