Testing your app in a UBOS container running on Arch Linux¶
In addition to your development host running Arch Linux, you need a device or virtual machine running UBOS on which you can test your developed code. Obviously, you can use any of the supported UBOS platforms (be that physical devices or virtual devices) for that purpose.
But in our experience, development is particularly productive if you run UBOS in a Linux container on the same Arch Linux development machine. If you run btrfs on your Arch Linux development machine, getting a clean UBOS target can be done in just a few seconds, which is great for reproducible installs and tests.
To run a UBOS container on a Arch development machine, follow these steps:
Download UBOS for a Linux container on your machine architecture (such as x86_64) as described in Installation.
Unpack this file into a btrfs subvolume. Neither btrfs nor subvolumes are required, but they make things faster while taking up less disk space. Assuming you picked ~/ubos-development as a place for your subvolume:
> cd ~ > btrfs subvolume create ubos-development > cd ubos-development > tar xfJ <path-to-downloaded-UBOS-archive>
Run both IPv4 and IPv6 based iptables on your host, otherwise UBOS cannot set up its own firewall and the UBOS container will boot into a degraded state. If you aren’t already doing this, on the host:
> sudo [[ -e /etc/iptables/iptables.rules ]] || cp /etc/iptables/empty.rules /etc/iptables/iptables.rules > sudo [[ -e /etc/iptables/ip6tables.rules ]] || cp /etc/iptables/empty.rules /etc/iptables/ip6tables.rules > sudo systemctl enable iptables ip6tables > sudo systemctl start iptables ip6tables
This will not actually perform any firewall functionality (the ruleset is empty), but it will allow the UBOS container to set up its own firewall.
Boot the container using systemd-nspawn. (Other Linux container tools may provide similar functionality.) The following invocation may be advantageous:
cd ~ sudo systemd-nspawn -b -n -D ubos-development -M ubos-development --bind /home
This will set up a named container called ubos-development, using the directory you uncompressed UBOS into as the root filesystem, and set up a private, DHCP-enabled and masquerading-enabled network on your host, so Arch development machine and UBOS container can communicate, and UBOS can reach the internet. It will also mount your home directory tree from the development host into the UBOS container, so access to the development files becomes easy.
In addition, you may want to specify -x in the command. This will use an ephemeral copy of ~/ubos-development as the root filesystem for the container, which will disappear when the container quits. Thus getting a clean new UBOS target is as simple as restarting the container.
When the boot process is finished, log in as user root. By default, there is no password on the console.
Your container should automatically acquire an IP address. You can check with:
> ip addr
Make sure you are connected to the internet before attempting to proceed.
Pick a hostname that you will use to run your apps at in the container, for example testhost. Add this and the container’s IP address to the Arch development machine’s /etc/hosts, so you can easily reach the container with a virtual hostname.
Update UBOS to the latest and greatest:
> ubos-admin update
Relax the rules usually requiring valid package signatures for all packages on UBOS. This allows you to install your own packages without having to sign them. In the UBOS container, in file /etc/pacman.conf, change this line:
LocalFileSigLevel = Required TrustedOnly
LocalFileSigLevel = Optional
Now you can create your code on the Arch development host and package it with makepkg (depending on your situation, makepkg -c -f -d may be the version you want). This will produce a package file easily recognized by the pattern .pkg in its filename. For example, it might be example-0.1-any.pkg.tar.xz.
In the UBOS container, install that package with:
pacman -U example-0.1-any-pkg.tar.xz
before you continue deploying your app, accessory or site using it with ubos-admin createsite or ubos-admin deploy, so UBOS will be able to use it, as it obviously cannot be found in the UBOS software repository while you are developing it.