Why is it called UBOS?¶
Why not? :-)
Also, you can pronounce it in a way that makes a lot of sense for the kinds of things UBOS was created to do.
Why does UBOS ask for a domain name when installing a new Site?¶
UBOS mostly cares about applications that are accessible over the web. To access an application over the web, your browser needs to know which server to talk to (the web is a big place!) and the common way of doing that is to use domain (DNS) names. This is why ubos-admin createsite asks for a domain name.
I own a domain name, and I’d like to use it for my UBOS device. How do I do that?¶
Generally, you do two things:
- When you set up your Site with ubos-admin createsite, you specify that domain name. (You could also say *, but if you specify the domain name you can later add another Site with a different domain name that runs on the same UBOS device.)
- You instruct your domain name registrar or name server to resolve your domain to your UBOS device. The exact details of this process depend on your registrar or name server, so we cannot describe this here. But in general, you set up an “A” record that points to the IP address of your UBOS device. This requires that your device’s network interface can be reached over the public internet.
Can I use UBOS without purchasing a domain name?¶
- You can use the IP address of your UBOS device instead of a domain name, if you have specified *, or the IP address directly as the domain name when executing ubos-admin createsite.
- If you are satisfied with accessing your UBOS device only on your local network, the UBOS device advertises itself via mDNS and you can use that name. See Setting up networking and DNS.
- You can enter your Site name in your /etc/host file(s) or in the local DNS server of your home router. This makes most sense if your Site is only on your local network anyway.
How can I install more than one web App on the same device?¶
Yes. In two ways:
- You can invoke ubos-admin createsite as many times as you wish and specify as many Apps as you wish. You can even specify the same App more than once (for example, if several members of your family like to run Wordpress) as long as you use different path names. However, every time you invoke ubos-admin createsite again, you need to use a different hostname: createsite means that you are creating a separate Site every time; the command cannot modify an existing Site.
- You can augment an existing Site by adding another App to the same Site, accessible at the same hostname. To do that today, you need to obtain the existing Site‘s site JSON file with ubos-admin showsite --json --hostname <hostname>, save the file, edit the file by adding another entry into the appconfigs array that describes the additional App you wish to run, and deploy the new configuration with ubos-admin deploy -f <edited-site-json-file>. There is currently no command that allows you to do that interactively (but you could help us out and create one, see this issue).
How do I set up WiFi?¶
The UBOS Staff (see The UBOS Staff) has recently learned how to do that. That would be the easiest approach.
If you want to do it manually, there’s a blog post on the subject.
Is it safe to have my Site accessible from the public web?¶
This is one of these unanswerable questions. Like: is it safe to go on a two-week vacation or will my house be broken into while I’m gone? We can’t quite answer that question.
But here are some thoughts:
- If you use UBOS on the yellow (“beta”) release channel, assume there are bugs.
- If you use UBOS on the green (“production”) release channel, still assume that there are bugs.
- To see which bugs have been filed, go to Github.
- As an free project, UBOS is “as-is” and we make no warranties of any kind.
- So far, we are not aware of any break-in or compromise of any UBOS system by anybody.
- We run UBOS ourselves, and we definitely don’t want to be compromised.
My SD card is much larger than the UBOS image. How do I use the rest of the space?¶
It would be best if you don’t burn the UBOS image to your large SD Card, but instead to a temporary SD card. Then you boot from the temporary card, and use ubos-install to create a clean new installation on your large SD Card. ubos-install will use all available space. Then you can discard your temporary SD card.
You can also expand the file system, but note that this is an expert-level operation; you can very easily screw your existing UBOS installation and all data on it. So be very careful. In principle, it should work like this: first determine what filesystem your UBOS root partition runs on. On most devices, UBOS runs on “btrfs” but it might be “ext4”. Then, use a command specific to that filesystem type to expand the filesystem, such as btrfs filesystem resize (for “btrfs) or resize2fs (for “ext4”). Alternatively, you can add a second device to the btrfs filesystem pool.
I need a package that isn’t in UBOS¶
If so, please file a bug against the apps-wanted repository, stating the name of the package and why you think you need it. It would be best if you could identify the exact package name in the Arch Linux repositories and/or the link to the project developing it. When that happens, we usually add the package to the next UBOS release.
In the meantime, you can install most Arch Linux packages directly on UBOS: download the package for your hardware platform (x86 from the Arch Linux project, and ARM from the Arch Linux ARM project), and use pacman -U to install.
I need root¶
You should be able to do all typical systems administration with the shepherd account. This account is permitted to perform sudo <cmd> for those commands that require root privileges, but no more, in order to cut down on inadvertent changes that will get in the way of UBOS’ way of doing things. So: “Root is not the account you are looking for.”
However, if you insist, there are two easy ways of getting root:
- On a system where you have access to the console, you can simply log into the console as root.
- As user shepherd, invoke sudo su or sudo bash. This will give you a root shell.
What is the default root password?¶
In UBOS versions prior to September 2020, there was no root password when attempting to log in as root from the local console.
In UBOS versions since September 2020, the default root password is “ubos!4vr” (without the quotes).
You can, and should change this to something else, for example by executing passwd as root.
Network login for root was and continues to be disabled. To log into your device via ssh, use the shepherd account (see The UBOS Staff).
I want to run ssh on a non-standard port¶
Some people like to run the ssh daemon on a non-standard port, in the hope that fewer attackers on the open internet probe it. Note that by default, UBOS only accepts public-key based authentication, not password-based authentication, so it’s not very likely that anybody can guess your credentials even if they try many times.
But if you’d like to run the ssh daemon on a non-standard port anyway, do this:
- On your UBOS device, edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config. Look for the line that says #Port 22. Remove the # and change the 22 to the port number you want. Save. (This configures the ssh daemon to listen to a different port.)
- Create new file /etc/ubos/open-ports.d/ssh and enter a single line with content <PPP>/tcp where <PPP> is the port number you picked. Save. (This tells UBOS which extra port to open in the firewall.)
- Execute sudo ubos-admin setnetconfig client. Substitute the name of your net config for client if you are not using client. (This will reconfigure the firewall.)
- Execute sudo systemctl restart sshd.service. (This will restart the ssh daemon.)
I want the webserver logs to include the site referral¶
To do that, edit /etc/httpd/conf/logging.conf, comment out this line so it looks like this:
# CustomLog "/var/log/httpd/access_log" common
and uncomment this line, so it looks like this:
CustomLog "/var/log/httpd/access_log" combined
Then, restart the web server with:
# systemctl restart httpd.service