Installation or boot problems¶
On a PC: cannot boot UBOS from boot stick¶
Q: I have created a boot stick for x86_64 per instructions in Run UBOS from a boot stick on a PC (64bit). But the PC still boots from the previously installed operating system, not UBOS.
A: You probably need to allow booting from USB in your BIOS. Many PCs are shipped with that setting off:
- Reboot your PC.
- Immediately after reboot, the PC’s BIOS runs. It usually tells you about a key to press to enter “settings” or “BIOS” or such. This key often is the delete key, or a function key. Press that key immediately. It tends to pass by quickly, so you may have to reboot again to catch it.
- Once you have entered the BIOS, you need to look for the setting. All BIOS’s are different, and sometimes this particular setting is really hard to find.
- When you have found the setting and set it to allow booting from a USB disk, save the settings and reboot. The BIOS screen usually tells you how to save and restart.
- Make sure the UBOS boot stick had been inserted already at the time you reboot.
- Then, you still might need to find yet another key to press quickly that gives you a popup dialog in which you can select which device to boot from.
- Select the device that seems to be your USB stick. It won’t be SATA (that’s a built-in disk) but might be called PMAP, as BIOS manufacturers like to be cryptic it seems.
On a PC: UBOS boot starts out fine, but then the screen goes blank¶
Q: I am booting UBOS on a PC. The grub bootloader comes up and starts “UBOS Linux”. On a new screen, there are a few more boot messages, and then, the screen goes blank. What happened?
A: Chances are, UBOS is booting just fine. There are just some evil forces that have conspired to make your screen go blank, so you can’t see that UBOS is booting.
The magic incantation that you need is a Linux kernel parameter. Do this:
- When the grub bootloader screen comes up, hit the ‘e’ key. This will keep grub from continuing to boot. Instead, it will give you a window with scary-looking bootloader commands in it. That’s where you need to apply your evil-forces-banishing magic incantation.
- Move your cursor to the line which starts with linux and has lots of strange other words after it.
- Move your cursor to the very end of that line, and add your magic incantation. Do not change any other words on that line, just add to the end.
- Then, hit F-10 (or ctrl-X) – see the bottom of the screen – to continue the boot with your magic incantation present.
Q: Now just what is the magic incantation?
A: In many cases, it may be video=LVDS-1:d. As magic goes, your mileage may vary depending on your computer hardware and configuration. More options can be found at ibiblio.org.
Q: The magic incantation worked, but do I need to that every time??
A: No. When you have booted your PC from a UBOS boot stick, and you install UBOS on a hard drive permanently on this PC, add an extra argument to the ubos-install command that holds your magic incantation. For example, if you install UBOS on your first hard drive, say:
ubos-install /dev/sda --addkernelparameter video=LVDS-1:d
This will put the incantation into the grub setting permanently.
Q: If I forgot to add that kernel parameter during installation, do I need to reinstall?
A: No. Open /etc/default/grub with a text editor of your choice, and look for the line that starts with GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT. Append the parameter you wanted, and save the file. For example, you may want this line to read:
Then, update your boot loader by invoking:
grub-install --recheck /dev/sda
Of course, specify a device name other than /dev/sda if you boot from a different hard drive.
On any device: nothing happens when UBOS is supposed to be booting¶
Chances are, your boot stick or SD card (depending on the device you are using) is bad, or writing the UBOS disk image to the card wasn’t successful. This unfortunately happens. We recommend you write the image on the disk or stick again, and try again. If that fails, try a different boot stick or SD card.
To check the status of the services running on your device, invoke:
This should say running, except when the system is not fully booted yet, which it should say starting. If it says degraded, something went wrong and one or more services could not be started. To find out which, invoke:
This shows you the list of services that are supposed to be running, but failed to do so.
Restarting a service¶
Assume service foo has failed, you can attempt to restart the service:
systemctl restart foo
and see whether that helps. To find out what might have gone wrong, consult the system journal about this service:
journalctl -u foo
If you cannot determine what went wrong, see “I need help” below.
In a container: problems with “IPv6 Packet Filtering Framework”¶
If you run UBOS in a container, and during boot, you get a message that says “Failed to start IPv6 Packet Filtering Framework”, or if one of the failed services is ip6tables, chances are that your host operating system does not have IPv6 enabled.
Usually, that requires you to manually load the respective kernel extension. If your host operating system is Arch Linux, simply execute, in the host:
and reboot your container.
To make this permanent, create file /etc/modules-load.d/ip6_tables.conf with the following single line of content: ip6_tables and have systemd pick it up with:
systemctl restart systemd-modules-load
Logging on problems¶
I can’t log on via SSH¶
To log into your UBOS device over the network with SSH, you need to have set up the UBOS shepherd account (or some other account). While you can log into your UBOS device as root from the console, you cannot log on as root over the network at all. This is generally considered good security practice on Linux.
App installation and management problems¶
There’s an error message about pacman and gpg when attempting to install an app¶
Most likely, UBOS isn’t finished generating its cryptographic keys on the first boot. Execute:
> sudo systemctl is-system-running
and only proceed once its reports “running”.
On any device: a package not found error when installing a new app¶
This can happen if you haven’t updated your UBOS device for some time. ubos-admin will attempt to install a package that has been upgraded since, and can’t find the old version.
Always execute ubos-admin update before installing a new app.
In VirtualBox: I’m running out of space on my disk image. What now?¶
You can resize your VirtualBox disk image. Instructions can be found on the web, such as at http://www.midwesternmac.com/blogs/jeff-geerling/resizing-virtualbox-disk-image .
Cannot reach the public internet from a container running UBOS¶
In this case, chances are that your host operating system is not correctly configured for networking containers. Here is a list of things to check:
On your host, a new network interface is generated just for the UBOS container. Using:
check that such an interface appears when you create the container, and it has a suitable IP address such as 10.0.0.1. If not, check that you are running systemd-networkd on the host with a suitable configuration file.
In your UBOS container, using:
make sure your container has a corresponding IP address such as 10.0.0.2. If not, check that you are running systemd-networkd on the host with a suitable configuration file.
Test that you can ping the container from the host, and the host from the container with a command such as:
If you can’t and both host and container have correct IP addresses, make sure your host does not run a firewall that prevents the communication from happening.
If the container can communicate with the host, and the host with the public internet, but the container cannot communicate with the public internet, chances are that some of the involved network interfaces aren’t forwarding packets. This is common because most Linux distros deactivate packet forwarding by default. The simplest way to globally switch on packet forwarding on the host is to execute:
sudo sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward=1