The UBOS rsync server

/docs/developers/infrastructure/ubos-rsync-server/

ubos-rsync-server is a Package that makes it easy for developers to support secure file upload/download from UBOS-deployed Apps via rsync over ssh. Using this package is often very convenient for developers of Apps whose data should be uploadable or downloadable from the command-line, not just via a web browser.

To do discuss it, we will use the docroot App available on UBOS that makes use of ubos-rsync-server. docroot is a simple web App for static web site hosting. You may want to review its end user documentation first.

To examine docroot, please refer to its source code on Github.

You notice that docroot consists of only a handful of files:

  • tmpl/htaccess.tmpl is the (template for the) Apache configuration fragment for this App. Other than setting up permissions, PHP and some useful PHP environment variables, all this does is map the root of the installation URL (symbolically: ${appconfig.context}/ to a specific subdirectory called rsyncdir of the AppConfiguration’s data directory: /ubos/lib/docroot/${appconfig.appconfigid}/rsyncsubdir/.) In other words, the files in this directory will be presented to the user by the web server.

  • install only makes sure that the UBOS Device has a local user called docroot.

  • ubos-manifest.json is more interesting. First, it makes sure that the AppConfiguration’s data directory and the rsyncdir subdirectory exist (the latter is marked as “to be backed up”). Then, it makes sure the htaccess file is instantiated in put in the right place. Finally, it runs a script, which, as you can see from its full path, has been provided by ubos-rsync-server; we get to that in a second. It ends with the declaration of the Customization Point that enables the user to specify the public key used to upload during ubos-admin createsite.

What does this provision-appconfig script do? (You can look at its source code here.)

In short, it edits the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file of the docroot user. Recall that the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file contains the list of public keys that enable a remote user to remotely log in, via ssh, into the docroot account on the current Device with a public SSH key and no password.

This docroot user was created by and specifically for the docroot App. As this user has no password, password-based authentication or login is not possible. provision-appconfig now edits its ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file in a way that:

  • only remote users are allowed to connect via ssh who are in possession of a valid SSH keypair whose public key has been added to this file;
  • but they aren’t allowed to start an arbitrary shell either, only upload data, and
  • it only permits upload to the resyncdir of the specific AppConfiguration to which the SSH public key was added as a Customization Point. Admittedly, this is an unusual configuration for SSH, but very appropriate for our purpose here.

This setup is a little tricky – which is why we created this package, so you don’t have to – but the essence of the authorized_keys edits is the following:

  • each installation of docroot on the same Device adds an addition authorized key to the authorized_keys file. This means that if you have five installations of docroot on the same device, the authorized_keys file will contain five upload keys.

  • incoming rsync-over-ssh connections will be examined by which AppConfigId they specify. Only if the correct combination of SSH key and AppConfigId is presented does the upload succeed. This prevents attackers who do not have the correct combination from accessing AppConfigurations they should not be able to access.

  • Also, AppConfigId gets translated into the correct directory for the AppConfiguration, which happens to be the rsyncdir that goes with the AppConfiguration.

The result: The user can securely upload via rsync over ssh to their own docroot Sites, but no others, even if others have docroot Sites on the same Device.

ubos-rsync-server can be used by any other App the same way: setup a user that goes with the App, and have the App’s UBOS Manifest invoke provision-appconfig just like docroot does.